This is the greatest sermon Jesus ever preached. The Lord's prayer, the beatitudes, and the golden rule are in this sermon.
The Sermon on the Mount is in the 5th, 6th, and 7th chapters of Matthew. You can read the entire sermon here. It's divided into 5 sections listed below:
Beatitudes - Teachings that begin with "blessed." These were meant to comfort suffering believers.
New laws - Contrasts the old law of Moses with the new law of Christ. A brief summary of Christian doctrine.
Lord's prayer - Instructions on prayer. Jesus also teaches the proper motives for fasting and offering gifts.
Money & Worry - Christian attitudes concerning the use of money. Reasons to avoid worry.
Warnings - Dangers of false teachers and hypocrisy. Jesus also presents the parable of the wise and foolish builders.
Where was Jesus?
Jesus delivered this sermon on a mountain near Capernaum. Tradition ascribes the site to an extinct volcano named Karne Hittim.
Jesus sat while delivering the Sermon on the Mount. Sitting connotated authority, so rabbi's often sat while teaching.